Persian Gulf

In the 5th century BC, Darius the Great of the Achaemenid dynasty called the Persian Gulf "Draya; tya; haca; parsa: Aitiy", meaning, "The sea which goes from Persian." In this era, some of the Greek writers also called it "Persikonkaitas", meaning the Persian Gulf.

Claudius Ptolemaues, the celebrated Greco-Egyptian mathematician/astronomer in the 2nd century called it "Persicus Sinus" or Persian Gulf. In the 1st century AD, Quintus Curtius Rufus, the Roman historian, designated it "Aquarius Persico" – the Persian Sea. Flavius Arrianus, another Greek historian, called it "Persiconkaitas" (Persian Gulf).

During the Sassanian dynasty and the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the 4 caliphs, the name invariably used was the "Persian Sea." This was continued by the Ummayyads and Abbassids, while during the time of the Ottoman Empire, both "Persian Gulf" or "Persian Sea" were used. Among historians, travellers and geographers of the Islamic era, many of them writing in Arabic from the 9th to the 17th century, Ibn Khordadbeh, Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Rustah, Sohrab, Ramhormozi, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al Istakhri, Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Mas'udi, Al-Mutahhar ibn Tahir al-Maqdisi(d. 966), Ibn Hawqal, Al-Muqaddasi, Ibn Khaldun, Mohammad ibn Najub Bekiran, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Abu'l-Fida, Al-Dimashqi, Hamdollah Mostowfi, Ibn al-Wardi, Al-Nuwayri, Ibn Batutta, Katip Çelebi and other sources have used the terms "Bahr-i-Fars", "Daryaye-i-Fars", "Khalij al-'Ajami" and "Khalij-i Fars" (all of which translate into "Persian Gulf" or "Persian Sea"). Until the 1960s Arab countries used the term "Persian Gulf" as well, however with the rise of Arab nationalism (Pan-Arabism) in the 1960s, most Arab states started adopting the faked term "a-r-a-b-i-a-n Gulf" to refer to the waterway. However, this naming has not found much acceptance outside of the Arab world, and is not recognized by the United Nations or any other international organization. At the Twenty-third session of the United Nations in March–April 2006, the name "Persian Gulf" was confirmed again as the legitimate and official term to be used by members of the United Nations.